Theory of DNA Science Full Information

In the beginning, God created the heavens
the earth and God said let us make man
in our image, the Bible calls him Adam
one man who fathered us all now genetics
points to a scientific atom microscopic
clues in our DNA linked every man on
earth back to one man one common
an ancestor to understand how this could be
we must discover scientific Adams lost
Eden enter his world and look him in the
eye at an unexpected crossroads of Bible
and biology were headed on a search for
Adam
we look so different the idea that we’re
all related seems impossible it’s hard
to believe that six billion people all
share the same ancestor yet three of the
world’s great religions Christianity
Islam and Judaism and bothered us all
that makes Adam a key figure in the
belief more than half the world now
science offers a chance to find a
genetic atom a single ancestors
DNA survives in every man on earth today
from the Inuit of the Arctic the
Amerindians of the Amazon from the
nomads of the desert to the businessman
of Wall Street Spencer Wells a
geneticist with National Geographic will
lead us on a journey to identify the
scientific atom and reveal what made him
so exceptional that he could father all
men on earth
but how do you when Ravel a chain so
many generations long a chain that leads
all the way to the roots humanity’s
family tree I really need a tool a kind
of time machine to allow me to do that a
genetic time machine geneticists have
developed just such a tool a way to
follow DNA trails deep into the past our
search for Adam will uncover genetic
secrets of an unexpected cast of
characters one of the greatest warriors
in history one of America’s founding
fathers even an Ethiopian prince who
claims to be descended from an ancient
biblical King what links these men
designed to the gadem their DNA most of
our DNA is a jumble from all our
ancestors it’s what makes each of us
unique but there’s a section of our
genetic code that stays almost constant
the Y chromosome the special piece of
DNA that only men have
it’s passed virtually unchanged from
father to son like a family name the
y-chromosome links the man up today with
the men who lived in the past this tiny
piece of DNA allows us to travel back in
time through humanity’s history these
days we use DNA to test whether a man is
the biological father of a child could
it really link the billions of men alive
today that one ancestor Wells believes
the answer is yes that the Y chromosome
can trace the origins of men from all
over the world from Africa to America
all the branches of the tree join up in
one trunk the Y chromosome links men
today back to their common ancestors
the key is to reveal super ancestors men
who left their genetic imprint on huge
numbers they’re like branching points
where vast sections of the tree come
together in a single man geneticists can
trace them further and further back down
the tree to the ultimate super ancestor
scientific atom our search starts in an
unlikely place with the super ancestor
past his DNA to millions he left such a
vast legacy Welles thinks he can trace
it in a bar in San Francisco the Bay
View Boat Club is a watering hole for a
group of Mongolian immigrants these men
have an outrageous claim they save their
descendants from the great Mongol
Emperor Genghis Khan so how many people
in Mongolia really believe that they’re
related to China stuff every single
person every single part of a million
people it seemed preposterous acted as
if everyone in America believed they
were descended from George Washington
but if there’s any truth to their claim
these men will link back to a common
ancestor who lived generations ago the
first step on our journey back toward a
diploma so you guys interested in
finding out if you could be related to
Chinggis Khaan himself
let’s go okay and then I’ll pass tapping
the power of DNA to start basic tools
Darrell by the way which is kind of like
a glorified toothbrush pull it out of
the container just like that
just a few cheap cells and wells can
unlock secrets from our genetic past
with a simple swipe well hopes to trace
these men all the way back to a famous
warrior lift eight hundred years ago and
thousands of miles away
Genghis Khan is one of the greatest
historical figures of all time eight
centuries ago he ruled one of the
largest empires the world has ever seen
what are the chances that a couple of
guys in a San Francisco bar could be
related to such an extraordinary man
machines analyzed the mongolians DNA
looking for traces on the y chromosome
that could link them to jenga’s khan the
odds against finding a connection seem
astronomical but Wells has some
surprising news
on the results he’s found evidence that
two of these men are related to jenga’s
car these are your results sarin george
denver al and that’s or tomorrow all
right
what makes Wells think that these men
link back to jenga’s Khan himself he’s
never met them before he doesn’t have
their family trees and he doesn’t have
jenga’s Khan’s DNA but Wells believes
the Y chromosome can confirm the link
most the time the y chromosome is passed
unchanged from father to son like a last
name but sometimes little differences
creep in like the spelling of a family
name changing over time every so often a
harmless mutation appears on one man’s Y
chromosome all his sons inherit that
mutation and all their sons it marks all
descendants like a brand that’s how
Wells found that 16 million men are
cousins their Y chromosomes all show the
same mutations
that means they’re all descended from
one single man a Central Asian super
ancestor but who was he wells and other
genetic detectives piece together the
clues the mutations cluster around one
place Mongolia they traced to almost a
thousand years ago scientists believe he
must have been a man of power with many
sons pass on his family line
the clues all point to one man Genghis
Khan the evidence is circumstantial but
compelling Khan’s Empire stretched from
Kazakhstan to Korea he ruled the dynasty
that lasted generations his sons and
their sons had the power and position to
spread his Y chromosome
as his army swept through Central Asia
they cut down their enemies and often
took their women a result more offspring
with jenga’s Khan’s y-chromosome and
other men’s lineages destroyed forever
jiangha scons DNA is buried with him an
unknown grave but his Y chromosome
mutations survived in his descendants
today the research shows the y
chromosome can take us back hundreds of
years but to find scientific Adam you
must trace a man from our very beginning
who fathered not millions but billions
the payoff is almost unimaginable an
Adam who may have been the first truly
modern human who’s even we can pinpoint
whose face we can reconstruct this is a
scientific quest yet the idea behind our
search was first written down in a
document of faith the Bible thousands of
years before genetics the book of
Genesis tells of one man who fathered us
all the Bible gives no physical
description of adam saying only that
he’s created out of dust in god’s image
Adam’s rib provides the raw material for
the first woman God gives them a home
the Garden of Eden but soon tempted by a
serpent Adam and Eve eat from the tree
of knowledge and are cast out of
paradise Adam and Eve have children and
according to the Bible this one family
has grown to include everyone on earth
today
the New Testaments Gospel of Luke lays
out Adams family tree generation by
generation but what if we tested someone
today claimed to be the linked to that
lineage most of the people the Bible
places on Adams family tree disappeared
without a trace yet one stands out as a
significant historical figure Solomon
the third king of Israel even today
there are people who claim to be
directly descended from Solomon the
Ethiopian royal family it seems
far-fetched the Jerusalem of Solomon is
1500 miles from Ethiopia but the
Ethiopians claim to have an
extraordinary piece of physical evidence
that ties them to the Holy Land
the Ark of the Covenant was believed
contained the tablets of the Ten
Commandments
the Word of God legend says it was kept
in a temple built by Solomon in
Jerusalem until it was taken by
Solomon’s son mandoline and later
brought to a little Church in Axum in
northern Ethiopia today the Ethiopian
royal family claims direct descent from
an omec and so from Solomon if that’s
true their family tree connects directly
to the biblical lineage elana to test
that lineage we’ll need a royal will
cooperate in 1974
Ethiopia’s Emperor Haile Selassie was
deposed the royal family fled into exile
we tracked down a prince who agreed to
participate in our search on one
condition
we can’t reveal his identity he wants to
avoid accusations that he’s using his
link to Solomon to reclaim the throne
the prince takes a secret DNA test a few
tiny cheek cells transport us deep into
the past the DNA can reveal where the
princes ancestors came from could it
link him to Solomon the results are
tantalizing
the princess y chromosome mutations do
lend support to his claim they point to
middle-eastern ancestry but it’s not
definitive proof with jenga’s khan we
had 16 million men pointed to one man
with Solomon we may have one Ethiopian
Prince there’s simply not enough
evidence to go on
the experiment shows how hard it can be
to trace the Bible’s genealogy it’s a
book of faith not forensic evidence what
the Bible is saying about creation is
way beyond the scope of science
it’s not about DNA and all that it’s
about who we are as people in Hebrew the
name Adam also means people what’s
important about Adam is that Adam is
every person the Bible gave us the idea
of Adam
but finding the scientific version will
take modern genetics
if we succeed will link all men today
back to a sign to fig Adam and maybe
even pinpoint is Garden of Eden as
people move from place to place they
often end up far from where their
lineage began our family tree is
becoming tangled at the top
tracing family lines is getting harder
and harder there’s only one way to clear
away the tangles analyze why chromosomes
from people who still lived in the land
of their forefathers to get a clearer
picture of our family tree Wells is
leading a research project with the
National Geographic Society in IBM it’s
called the Genographic project it’s a
massive undertaking it will take years
but when he’s done wells will be able to
tell where anyone in the world comes
from Wells and his colleagues and
crisscross the globe in search of DNA
samples from Aborigines in Australia two
tribes met in South America they’ve
journeyed from Central Asia to South
Africa to Siberia wells can already tell
a lot about summers origins just using
their Y chromosome and he thinks he’s
found something unexpected in the
background of one of America’s most
famous figures
the third President Thomas Jefferson
research on Jefferson’s why has already
given us one huge surprise it had long
been suspected that Jefferson fathered
children by his slave Sally Hemings a
1998 study used the Y chromosome to
prove that it was almost certainly true
it showed that this white man apparently
had black descendants now Wells believes
he’s discovered something about
Jefferson that no one suspected a
discovery not about his descendants but
about his ancestors and it could take us
a big step toward Adam Wells noticed
that Jefferson’s y chromosome mutations
don’t look European so where did
Jefferson’s ancestors come from find out
the truth Wells needs another DNA sample
the trail leads to rural Virginia one of
the closest living relatives of the
founding father lives in freeze bridge
now do you have any any sense of your
own ancestry and do you’re descended
from Thomas Jefferson Hammond OBM
Jefferson shares the founding fathers
last name he also inherited his Y
chromosome it’s not gonna hurt and you
rub it on the inside of your cheek
really scrape away up and down
everything about Jefferson points to him
being European
genealogists have traced his ancestry
back to medieval France and Britain but
the test reveals something you might
never have imagined
Jefferson’s y-chromosome links amat to
Europe but to the Middle East what is
now Lebanon and Syria this is the best
guess a direct ancestor lived in a land
that no longer exists called Phoenicia
the Bible calls it Canaan Jefferson may
look European but his Y chromosome tells
a different story it shows that what we
look like may not really tell us where
we come from and it raises the question
mark over the traditional image of Adam
for centuries artists have depicted him
like this like a European for many of us
this is Adam Michelangelo’s famous
painting in the Vatican’s Sistine Chapel
he looks like a beautiful Italian who
spends a lot of time in the gym
did the common ancestor of all men
really look like this
the story of Jefferson suggests he could
have looked very different but Jefferson
can lead us much further back than his
Phoenician ancestor Jefferson has a
particular mutation that he shares with
men from many different countries with
the same techniques used on jenga’s Khan
Wells can link this mutation to another
critical common ancestor he’s known as
m9 he lived around 40,000 years ago
wells research suggests this one man
could be the forefather of half of all
men alive we’re getting closer to Adam
but Wells knows there are some men who
do not have the m9 mutation to identify
the common ancestor of all men he must
take us deeper down the tree but where
does he go next
there are clues from beyond the world of
genetics if evidence you can touch
evidence from bones before the powerful
new tools of DNA our picture of
humanity’s past came almost entirely
from fossils that picture is incomplete
the oldest human fossils come from
Africa dating back millions of years but
ancient remains have been found at other
sites far away
the Middle East has produced early humid
Fox and pre-human remains have been
found in Asia fossil evidence points to
three regions that could be the
birthplace of humankind Asia the Middle
East and Africa in DNA result which one
gave birth scientific Adam wells wants
to find a place where people from all
three regions intersect a study of
historical trading routes offers a
likely candidate off the coast of Kenya
a tiny island of pata
a mysterious place with clues that seem
out of place in Africa curious ruins
main mosque
there’s painted black stiff monuments
that might be Islamic tombs that look
almost Chinese even the faces suggested
the shrinking mix some have the lighter
skin tone of Europeans some could be
Arabs others have eyes that look Asian
for centuries traders have come here
from all over the old world from Europe
the Middle East maybe even from China
jumbo history has created a genetic
melting pot and by taking a sample of
your DNA of your genes we can say
something about the people you’re
related to in the past your ancestors if
the Y chromosomes here lead to a common
ancestor for all these ethnic groups it
could lead us to Adam
you could open your mouth Wells take
sample I’m 25 local man right thank you
okay you could open your mouth
where was your mother born here DNA
analysis proves there are men on hot day
from all over the place thank you with
ancestors from Africa Europe Arabia
India in the Fertile Crescent of the
Middle East there is more genetic
variation on this tiny island of Pohnpei
than in many countries and the samples
show something critical they point to a
new super ancestor even though the Y
chromosomes come from all over the world
they almost all have something in common
a particular mutation scientists call em
168 in fact men all over the planet
share this mutation jenga’s Khan and the
San Francisco Mongolia’s have it Thomas
Jefferson has it Welles himself has it
nearly three billion men share this
limitation
and it means they’re all descended from
one man it’s a staggering thought
Genghis Khan could have fathered
millions but the man who first had this
genetic mutation at billions of
descendants we’re near the bottom of the
tree could this man M 168 be Adam
there’s only one problem on the kenyan
island of Pohnpei Spencer wells found
one man who doesn’t fit his Y chromosome
doesn’t have the critical mutation it’s
a crucial clue when it now he’s not even
your big one what about there are others
who are not descended from M 168 so he
can’t be Adam M 168 is far down the tree
but not its base and the Y chromosome
from the odd man out on Ponton gives us
the final piece of our puzzle
the man’s lineage originates in east or
south africa comparing this Y chromosome
to thousands of men from all over the
world reveals a critical discovery these
mutations originating in Africa appear
on every Y chromosome in every man in
the world today these are the universal
mutations we’ve been looking for
we followed the DNA trail all the way to
the bottom of the tree every branch
leads to one man one y chromosome there
must have been one man gave rise to all
men alive today he is the ultimate super
ancestor he is scientific Adam one of
his descendants was M 168 he was before
father of the ancient Middle Eastern
ancestor with Thomas Jefferson
he gave rise to Jenga scons y-chromosome
in fact all the y-chromosomes in the
world traced back to this one African
man he is scientific Adam wells believes
the pattern of African Y chromosomes
puts his birthplace somewhere in the
Great Rift Valley region of East Africa
perhaps Tanzania or Ethiopia
he thinks this is scientific adam’s
homeland his garden the lead genetics
and date the ancient y chromosome
mutations to calculate the age of
scientific adam wells believes he was
born around 60,000 years ago
it sounds ancient but it means our
search for a common ancestor has not led
us all the way back to a time of eight
men or even criminal beings like Homo
erectus compared to the billions of
years of human evolution we found Adams
in the recent past
the critical discoveries of where and
when Adam lived proved he could not have
looked like this for the first time it’s
possible to paint a new portrait of Adam
based on science facial reconstructions
have shown what other ancient humans
might have looked like we have images of
earlier beings like Homo erectus and the
ancient pre-human known as Lucy these
faces are all based on fossil skulls but
there are no intact skulls from adam’s
time there is a man who can give a face
to Adam even without his skull Frank
bender calls himself the recompose ER of
the decomposed he’s a forensic artist a
specialist at bringing the dead to life
vendor works regularly for police
departments around the world giving
faces to human remains even when the
skulls are almost missing atom skull is
missing but Bender will base his
reconstruction on the closest Scully can
find and that brings him to the American
Museum of Natural History in New York
City
Gary Sawyer is an expert on
reconstructing prehistoric faces he
believes this go found at a site called
Casa is a good basis for Adam because he
combines modern features with still some
archaic features and a lower forehead or
frontal and good-sized brow ridges the
calves the skull is about 100,000 years
old Adams skull would be much more
modern
bender will have to estimate what
thousands of years of evolution would
have done the Casamance appearance first
he uses his forensic skills to figure
out what cops a man look like
Wow like a no-loss plumber Vic
bender can determine his features from
the structure of the skull the shape of
the cheekbones the line of the jaw the
width of the nose
besides the chin calves a man is a
hundred thousand years old to construct
a face for Adam vendor has to update
this portrait by 40 thousand years as
humans evolved the shape of our skulls
changed browses shrank the forehead
became more vertical the chin more
prominent Adam should be almost halfway
between this ancient man and humans like
us vendor needs to find that midpoint
he needs a modern face to compare to the
ancient skull but not just any face he
wants someone whose lineage traces most
directly back to Adam wells knows where
to look in East Africa is a little-known
tribe called the Hansa Bay Spencer Donna
their DNA links them almost straight
back to Adam
they give us a glance in today’s world
and they point to what Adam could have
looked like scientific Adam should be a
midpoint between the ancient cops of
face and one of these faces like to have
the chief Julius and dilating men but
how do you blend the two to do this
accurately bender turns to technology
developed for security applications like
anti-terrorism facial recognition
software measures the incremental
difference that make a face unique like
the distance between the eyes will the
nose engineers pick out over 200
features that together to find the shape
of the Casa face turning it into a
mathematical model they do the same with
the huzzah be chief the computer
compares the two sets of data faces
separated by a hundred thousand years
and generates the midpoint a loop into
vadym
a printer converts the computer model
into a 3d head layer by paper-thin layer
the head emerges vendor will use this as
a template to finally give Adam a face
but the hugs eBay can do more than show
what scientific Adam might have looked
like they can give us a window into his
world and they reveal clues to what made
Adam and his descendant so exceptional
they could give rise to all men on earth
mutations on the Y chromosome show that
scientific Adam was born around 60,000
years ago an extraordinary time in human
history a time of crisis scientists
believe humans were on the brink of
extinction the entire population may
have fallen to no more than a couple of
thousand but from this moment of peril
humans begin an astonishing rise for the
first time part Pierce tool become much
more advanced this new energy and
innovation enable our species that
conquer the planet something critical
had changed in human nature what
triggered it is a puzzle yet it seems to
come just after Adam
is it a coincidence I don’t know maybe
it is but it’s also possible that Adam
was the one who set in motion these
changes how could one man change his
whole species wealth has the theory its
cutting-edge and highly controversial he
believes Adam may have been the first
man with the ability to think as we do
the first truly modern man if Wells had
his way he’d go back in time to find out
the ancient had Xabi tribe in Tanzania
may offer the next best thing a window
into Adams world
as people the HUD xabier is modern as
any of us but as a society they’ve
chosen to retain the lifestyle of the
earliest modern humans the lifestyle of
Adam has obby our hunter-gatherers
survival in this environment is an
extraordinary challenge they rely on the
kind of ingenuity that Wells believes
could have originated with Adam himself
it could almost be Adams clan preparing
for the Haunted sod that adapt the
huzzah may have figured out a way to
turn local trees into lethal weaponry
the boughs are strong flexible fire
straightens the arrow shafts
it looks simple but when they appear
they were revolutionary weapons that
kill at a distance deadly accurate
the HUDs ah they set out just as Adam
and his sons may have done to pit their
weapons in their brains against their
prey huzzah Bay’s hunting techniques
work but they had to be invented
developed by someone someone with the
insight to go beyond the techniques used
by the people before and Wells believes
may have been Adam himself first showed
this intelligence a culture of
innovation is one key to the success of
our species
what amplifies this genius is another
unique skill of language Wells believes
Adam they have had a brand new ability
to use complex speech astonishingly the
head Xabi could show us how Adam spoke
what what what what is it chef boom
bulgur what what Seema a symbol I’m no
quiet
they speak one of the most intricate
languages on earth along with regular
continents they use a chorus of clicks
that’s what they come with other than I
get done so questions also because I’m a
bit bah bah bah bah their speech is far
more complicated than most modern
languages and that suggests it’s been
around for much longer
English has around 30 different sounds
click languages can have over a hundred
scientists believe it when humans first
began to speak it may have used clicks
like these from Bway gucchy
we could be listening
add on himself on court well quit new
API not be like the bow and arrow these
sounds are simple but they may point to
what gave Adam is revolutionary
intelligence the HUD Xabi have allowed
us to explore Adams world now Frank
bender can show us what he might have
looked like his goal is not just sculpt
at him to reveal his personality I tried
to get into his head just like I would a
fugitive
intuition is the binder between art and
science it’s the part that pulls it all
together and gives it that life that
spark I picture him very much alive in
with a lot of the basic feelings that we
have today confidence one point in
security at another finally Wells comes
face to face with the man he’s been
searching for a new portrait of the
common ancestor of every man today Adam
without the skull we can’t know for sure
what Adam looked like but a combination
of genetic evidence vendors forensic
skills and cutting-edge computer
software suggest he looks something like
this
thousands of years after the Bible and
hundreds of years after Michelangelo we
have a whole new face for Adam I like
the expression he’s got a very forceful
look I was intent on something maybe
taking over the world you begin to get
perhaps an insight into why these guys
won out then why this guy’s our ancestor
science can’t tell for sure what’s that
Adam apart there were other men who
lived alongside him but over the
centuries all the other men’s lines died
out maybe some had only daughters or no
children at all there y-chromosomes
were lost forever
only Adams lineage survives here’s how
Adam could have become our ultimate
super ancestor sometime around 60,000
years ago Adam is born he’s a fast
learner and in time he proves himself as
a leader of his tribe his command of
language sets him apart perhaps he
invents new and more lethal weapons or
takes charge of the hunts devising new
strategies is much better than the other
guys at providing for his family and the
tribe and this makes him popular with
the ladies he has more children than the
others his sons inherit not just to
smarts but of course his y-chromosome
like jenga’s khan and his sons adam’s
y-chromosome begins to spread through
the population and adam’s intelligence
gets his sons the ability to leave
africa and populate the world around
50,000 years ago we start to expand out
of africa some populations start to
leave around that time and very rapidly
they reach places as far afield as
Australia perhaps within a couple of
thousand years a couple of thousand
years it’s like the blink of an eye and
wells can trace it all back to one
scientific data
this is not the man God creates in the
book of Genesis but now thousands of
years after the Bible was written
science has confirmed the essence of its
story there was one man whose DNA
survives and every man on earth today
his Garden of Eden was likely East
Africa other humans came before him but
only after him did we become truly
modern scientific Adam unites all men
today from Bono to Nelson Mandela from
Tiger Woods to David Beckham from Osama
bin Laden to the Dalai Lama
effectively we’re all members of an
extended family were all really cousins
and some believe that’s the message of
Genesis – Adam represents all of us and
that’s what makes him important not Adam
individually but the fact that Adam is
every individual we are all Adam
in finding scientific Adam the
y-chromosome is not just united all men
it is found common ground between the
worlds of science and faith

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